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J.M'AM >!: KAIKY TALES
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Do not to others what would
be disagreeable to yourself.
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TERESA PEIRCE WILLISTON
Author of "Japanese Fairy Tales "
MAUD HUNT SQUIRE
KAND McNALLY &- COMPANY
NEW YOP.K CHICAGO SAN FPvANCISCO
By TERESA PEIRCE WILLISTON
Bditii m "i
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n U.S. \.
THE TABLE OF CONTENTS
A List of the Full-Page Illustrations 8
A Foreword .
THE WONDERFUL GARDEN OF DREAMS .... 13
THE MAGIC FIDDLE 21
LITTLE TOE BONE 32
LITTLE BUZZ-MAN . . 9 45
THE PLOWMAN 57
THE MAGIC TOP 65
A Pronouncing and Defining Vocabulary .... 72
Suggestions to Teachers 74
Suggested Readings . . . . . . . . . . 84
A LIST OF THE FULL-PAGE
They lost their way in a wood, where a Brahman found tin m
The great King from a distant city chanced to be riding that way 12
The Prince called the Yogi into the palace 21
All the people ran along to see on whom the King's elephant would
spill the water 40
They set off together to see the world 52
"O Prince, do not try to enter those gates" <;r,
Tvrd; yz-' ^r
AFTER the day's work in the fields, with no
light save that of the moon and the stars, the
men, women, and children of the little Hindu
villages gather for their only recreation listening to
the tales of the village story-teller. Where did this
man learn his stories? From some earlier story-teller
to whom, as a child, he had listened. Thus from gen-
eration to generation, wholly by word of mouth, have
these stories been passed down, the unwritten literature
of a simple, story-loving people.
The tales contained in this volume were selected from
a large number collected from various sources, and were
chosen because they were the favorites of the four little
listeners, my self-appointed critics, with whom I shared
It is not good to forget a benefit
Let no man think lightly of good
The great King from a distant city clidiical to he riding that ;<v/v r
THE WONDERFUL GARDEN OF DREAMS
IN a city in India lived a little girl who had no
name. Her mother died when she was just
a baby, before there was time for her to be
named, and her father well, when he wanted
to speak to her he just shouted, 'You, there,"
and she always obeyed him, so that seemed to
be name enough.
As she grew older he found plenty for her to
do. Early in the morning she had to get up to
milk the cow, clean and polish everything in the
house, and prepare breakfast for her father. If
there were more than he wished to eat, little
You There could have what was left. After
that she had to take the cows of the village out
to pasture and watch to keep them from wan-
dering away. When the sun was straight above
her she returned to her home and prepared dinner
for her father, then went again to the fields to
care for the cows. At sunset the tired girl re-
turned with the cows to finish her work at home.
Finally she became so worn out with all this
work that she asked her father to bring home a
wife to do the work of the house. The father
brought home a new wife, just as she asked, but,
dear me! what a poor sort of a wife she was!
She was big and fat and lazy. She ate enough
for three people, and would n't even drive the
flies off her own food, much less prepare the meals
for other people. So poor little You There had
twice as much work to do as before.
It was very hot out in the fields, too, for there
were no trees near this village, not even a bush,
nothing but the long grass. In fact, the people
of that village hardly knew what a tree looked
like, for only the men who had traveled far away
to other towns had ever seen one. The poor
little girl had to stay out in the hot sun all day,
watching the cows, with nothing at all to shade
her. No wonder that she grew very tired and
sometimes fell fast asleep.
One day she fell asleep and dreamed such a
pleasant dream. She was sitting in a beautiful
garden full of tall, feathery palms and spreading
mango trees, and with a lovely fountain splash-
ing its cool waters in the center. But something
writhing and squirming in her lap awakened her.
It was a huge spotted snake. Ugh! How it
wriggled and slipped!
She was just about to scream and run away,
when she saw that the snake was in trouble, and
she was sorry for even a snake who needed help.
So she asked gently, "What do you want, poor
snake? Can I help you?"
"Yes," said the snake, "the hunters are after
me and will kill me. Will you let me coil myself
about your feet so that your skirt will hide me
until they have gone away?"
Now this little girl did n't like cold, crawling,
slimy things coiling about her feet any better
than you or I would, but she was very kind-
hearted and did not want to see even a horrid
spotted snake killed, so she said, "Well, coil
around quickly, and please, oh, please lie very
still and don't squirm one bit, and I'll promise
to hide you until they are gone."
The snake had no sooner hidden than the
hunters came. "Have you seen a big spotted
snake going this way?" they asked.
'I was asleep," said the little girl. "The sun
was hot, and I was tired. I just woke up, but
I don't see any snake here now." So the hunters
went on, thinking the snake was ahead of them.
After they were gone the snake came out
and said, "Little girl, I want to make you a gift
as a reward for saving my life. Ask the finest
thing you can think of, for I can give you
'There are just two things I should like to
have," said the girl. "One is a name, something
besides You There, which I don't like at all; the
other is a beautiful garden, full of tall palm and
mango trees, with a lovely fountain splashing its
cool waters in the center. I really think I'd
rather have the garden, for this sun is so very
"All right," said the snake. "A garden you
shall have, a wonderful Garden of Dreams, the
most beautiful one possible. You shall have the
name, too, but that will come later. Just close
your eyes one moment."
She closed her eyes, and what the snake did
then I '11 never tell you, but when he said, "Open,"
she opened her eyes to see the garden of her dreams.
How cool and pleasant it was in the shade of
the tall palm tree, with a fountain, tinkling like
a silver bell, in the center of the garden !
Just then she noticed the cows were straying
away, so she hopped up and ran after them.
Then what do you think became of the garden?
Why, it hopped up and ran along, too. Really,
it did -that beautiful garden full of tall palm and
mango trees, with the lovely fountain splashing
its cool waters in the center. The tallest palm
tree ran right along beside the little girl. Its
cool shade covered her every movement, and when
she was ready to sit down, there was her beautiful
garden with her, and she could rest in its shade.
When the sun had set and she drove the cows
home to the village her garden went with her,
and waited all night just outside her door, and
the fountain tinkled her a song \vhile she slept.
One day, as she was sleeping under her palm
tree, the great King from a distant city chanced
to be riding that way. He was tired, and he was
hot, and he was thirsty, and when he saw the cool
shade of the trees and heard the tinkle of falling
water he cried to his men, "See, here is a garden,
as lovely as one in a dream, and the only one in
all this treeless land. Dismount, tie your ele-
phants and camels, and rest while I sleep in the
shade of this mango tree."
The King slept, and he awoke to find his
mango tree running away and pushing him along
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as it ran. The palm tree ran, the mango tree
ran, the fountain ran; the elephants bellowed and
the camels grunted, but they ran also, all after
one stray cow. When the little girl, under the
tallest palm tree, had driven the cow back to the
other cows, she sat down and the beautiful garden
settled into quiet again.
Then the great King spoke to the little girl,
and will you believe it, he called her by a beautiful
new name Aramacobha, which means "Wonder-
ful Garden of Dreams" -so at last she had a
name, just as the snake had said. The King
asked her about her wonderful garden, and she
told him all about the 1 snake and how he came
to give the garden to her.
The more the King saw of the garden the
better and better he liked it, and he wanted it
and the little girl for his own. So he asked her to
come to his palace with him and be his Queen,
and share her wonderful Garden of Dreams with
When they reached the palace of the great
King the garden sat down outside the door of
the palace, just under the windows of the new
Queen Aramacobha, and the little fountain
tinkled her a song all through the day and
all through the night.
THE MAGIC FIDDLE
IN India there once lived a sister and seven
brothers. The brothers were all married,
and their wives were older and stronger than
the sister, but nevertheless this one poor little
girl had all the cooking, cleaning, and serving to
do for all seven brothers and all their seven wives
Even this would not have been so hard to
endure if they had been kind to her. But her
brothers cared nothing for her, for she was only
a girl; and her brothers' wives hated her all
the more, because she worked so hard for them
and yet never complained.
" Why cannot the stupid thing say something,
at least, w r hen I slap her?" cried the oldest wife.
'Isn't it vexing," sighed the second wife,
"to have to endure such patience? I am fairly
sick from it."
Then the third wife, the big, fat one, burst into
tears, and sobbed, "You don't know what I suffer
at her hands! Why, just this morning, when I
pinched her for letting my rice get cold, all she
could do was to smile and say, 'I am so sorry.'
Why, you have no idea how nervous I am getting
from such things."
So one and all decided that they really could
not stand her any more, and would have to find
some way to get rid of her before they all became
ill because of her and her ways.
"Could n't we push her into the well?" asked
wife number four.
'Better put a cobra into her bed, to bite her,"
said the fifth wife.
"No, that wouldn't do, for it might bite
us," said number six.
Then little number seven, with the big, big
eyes, squealed, "Oh, I know! I know what to do!
We must set the Bonga on her."
"Oh, yes, the Bonga!" they all cried.
Then some one said, "Ssh! Ssh!" and all
else was spoken in whispers.
That noon when the little sister went to the
well to draw water it dried up before her eyes.
"Oh, what evil thing have I done, that the water
should dry up before my eyes?" she cried.
No sooner had she said this than the water
slowly began to rise again. When it had risen
to her ankles she tried to fill her pitcher, but it
would not go under the water.
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The Prince called the
Then she cried to her brothers, "Oh, my
brothers, the water rises to my ankles; still, my
brothers, the pitcher will not fill!"
The water continued to rise until it was even
with her knees, when she began to wail again,
"Oh, my brothers, the water rises to my knees;
still, my brothers, the pitcher will not fill!"
The water continued to rise, and when it
reached her neck she cried, "Oh, my brothers,
the water rises to my neck; still, my brothers, the
pitcher will not fill!"
The water kept on rising and rising and rising,
until it was over her head, and then she called
again, "Oh, my brothers, the water measures a
man's height; now, my brothers, the pitcher
begins to fill."
The pitcher filled with water and sank, and
with it sank the little sister, and was drowned.
Then the Bonga changed her into a Bonga like
himself, and carried her off.
A tall bamboo growing near a spring now
became her home. The bamboo grew and grew,
until it was much larger than any of the others
around the spring. A Yogi saw it, and said to
himself, "I'll cut down that huge bamboo and
make a fine fiddle of it."
So he started to cut it with his ax, close to the
root, but the bamboo called out, 'Don't cut
me at the root! Cut higher up!"
He started to cut the bamboo near the top,
but the top cried out, "Don't cut me near the
top! Cut lower down!"
Again he tried to cut near the root, but the
root cried out, "Don't cut me near the root!
At that the Yogi became angry and cut the
tree down near the root and made a fine fiddle
out of it. It was a wonderful fiddle, and when
any one played on it all who heard the music
said, 'That sounds just like a girl singing!" and
all who heard it longed to hear it again.
The Yogi went from village to village playing,
and everywhere people came in crowds to hear
the wonderful fiddle that sounded just like a
girl singing. They came to hear it once, and they
came to hear it twice, gladly paying any price
the fiddler asked, for the music was sweet to
At last the Yogi became very rich, and very
vain, for he thought the people gave so much
money to hear his playing instead of the singing
voice. In fact, it made him angry to see how
much the people loved the wonderful fiddle, and
he became most unkind to it, though it, alone,
had made his fortune.
One evening he was playing before the palace
of a Prince. The music became sadder and more
beautiful than usual, and the singing voice in the
fiddle seemed to say, "O Prince, save me from
this unkind Yogi!"
Of course no one but the Prince heard and
understood the words, but
he at once knew that the
fiddle must be a magic one/
so he called the Yogi into
"What makes this won-
derful music, friend Yogi?"
asked the Prince. "Is it the cunning of your
hand, or is there some magic in the fiddle?
The Yogi bowed very low, and answered, 'I
hate to admit it, dear Prince, but I must say that
the wonderful music is all in my hand. This
fiddle is really a very poor affair, and it takes great
skill to make any music sound sweet upon it."
"You are very sure of that?" asked the Prince.
"Most noble Prince, take from me all that I
own if I am not telling you the truth. Really,
the fiddle is scarcely worth carrying about at all,
but I've nothing better."
"Then, my most wonderful Yogi, let me
present you with my finest fiddle. What music
we shall now hear! But just leave the old fiddle
here with me, since it is so poor a one."
"O best of Princes, how kind you are! But I
really could n't part with that old fiddle, even if
it is so worthless, I have carried it so long and am
so used to it. I '11 take both."
Just then the Prince heard, very plainly, a
soft, sweet song coming from the fiddle. No one
was touching the strings, but the song was sweet-
ness itself, and seemed to say, "Oh, save me,
save me, kind Prince!"
So he said to the Yogi, "If the music is really
in your hand, as you say it is, then you are better
off with the fine new fiddle I have given you. If,
as I believe, you are lying to me, and the music
is really in this magic fiddle which you so despise,
then I have the right to take anything of yours
that I wish, for you just said that I might if you
lied to me. Whatever you do, and wherever you
go, this old fiddle will stay here with me."
The Yogi turned and ran away as fast as he
could, taking, of course, the new fiddle, but he
never again earned any money by playing, for
now no one cared to hear him.
The Prince took the magic fiddle to his own
chamber and stood it in a safe place. In the
morning, when he awakened, he found a bowl of
steaming rice beside his bed. It was really the
best rice he ever had tasted, but he wondered how
it came there. That evening, when he returned,
there sat another bowl of rice, and also a large
dish of sweetmeats. "Some one certainly is my
friend," he thought, "but who can it be?"
In the morning, when he found his breakfast
all ready for him and steaming hot, he determined
to watch and see who was so kind to him. He
watched and listened all day, but nothing hap-
pened until the sun was beginning to sink. Then
he heard a soft rustling near him. The top of
the fiddle lifted, and out slipped a beautiful girl.
She quickly cooked rice and prepared sweetmeats,
set them under the head of his bed, and was just
slipping back into the fiddle again when he sprang
out and caught her.
"Now you won't have to live in that fiddle
any longer and be a Bonga. You shall be my
Princess," he said.
Then how glad she was! 'T was worth being
drowned and then living in a bamboo and finally
in a fiddle, to have, at last, so kind a husband and
so beautiful a home.
LITTLE TOE BONE
OOD morning, Mr. Tiger," said the little,
wee boy very politely. Then he went
on playing a pretty little song on his
"Good morning," growled the big Tiger, much
surprised, for really he was just about to swallow
the little, wee boy. "You are a very polite little
boy, I see, so I'll give you a choice. Would you
rather I'd eat you or all your sheep?'
"Would you mind if I ask my auntie? She
takes care of me, and these are her sheep. I
watch them every day, and I think I ought to do
just as she wishes me to, don't you?" asked the
little, wee boy very politely. Then he went on
playing the pretty little song on his reed pipe.
"You are a very polite little boy, I see, so I'll
wait till you ask your auntie. Does she live far
away?" growled the Tiger, looking rather hungry.
"Oh, yes, she lives far away in the village, and
I must not drive the sheep home until sunset;
but I '11 tell you the very first thing in the morning,
Mr. Tiger," said the little, wee boy very politely.
Then he went on playing the pretty little song
on his reed pipe.
When he reached home that evening he called,
"Oh, Auntie, may I please
ask you a question?"
"Well, and what is it?"
snapped his auntie.
" If a big, big Tiger should
come out of the jungle and
ask, 'Shall I eat you or the sheep?'
which should I tell him to eat?"
"Why, you, of course," snapped
So next morning, when the big,
big Tiger came out of the jungle and
said, " Well, little boy, shall I eat you or
all of your
little, wee boy
ly, "Me, of
course, Mr. Tiger." But the little, wee boy did
not play any pretty little song on his reed pipe.
Then the big, big Tiger looked at the little,
wee boy, and he coughed, and he switched his
tail; then he looked away up to the tiptop of
the tree, then he looked away off into the jungle,
but he did not seem in a very great hurry to
eat the little, wee boy.
'If you please, Mr. Tiger, if you must eat me
I wish you'd do it right away, for it is n't any fun
to wait," said the little, wee boy very politely.
'You're a very polite little boy," said the
Tiger, "and I don't like to eat you at all, but I
must live. Is there anything I can do for you
after I eat you?"
" Yes," said the little, wee boy. "After you 've
eaten me and picked all my bones very clean, will
you lay them in a nice, tidy pile at the foot of
this tree, and will you take my little toe bone and
tie it up in the very tiptop of the tree?'
"Certainly I will," said the Tiger, and he did,
When the winds blew, the little toe bone rocked
and swung on the topmost branch, and the little
white bones lay in a nice, tidy pile at the foot of
One night five robbers stopped there to divide
the money they had stolen. They sat under the
tree, and began to count out the gold and silver
/ ! --
into five piles. Then the little toe bone in the
tiptop of the tree began to rock and swing harder
than ever. The tree flung its branches about,
and the wind whistled by. Black clouds covered
the stars, and the rain came down in torrents.
The lightning flashed, the thunder roared, and
right in the worst of the storm the little toe bone
dropped from the tree right on top of the chief
"Oh, help!" he cried. "The sky is falling on
us to punish us! Let us run! Let us run!"
Away they ran* through the jungle, leaving all
their silver and gold in piles under the trees.
Then the storm stopped, and the stars shone
again on a wonderful sight. The little toe bone
had rolled from off the robber's head right upon
the tidy pile of little white bones, and they had
turned into the little boy once more, and there
he sat, playing a pretty song on his reed pipe.
When clay came he found clean stones, while
and red, blue and green, and he dug a hole in the
ground like a great cup, and lined it with the
stones. The white stones were at the bottom, and
the blue and red and green stones were about the
top, like a border. Then he played on his reed
pipe, very sweetly, and all the mother animals
from the jungle came to him to feed him, just as
they would their own little ones.
There were mother tigers and mother leopards,
mother lions, and even mother deer. When he
had had enough he put the rest of their milk in
the little pool he had made of the stones. Every
morning they came out of the jungle to feed him.
He drank all he wished, and the rest of the warm,
white milk he put in his pretty pool. Then all
day long he sat under the tree and played on his
pipe. All the sick and hungry animals came to
him and he let them drink from his pool, and they
always went away well and happy.
DEVAPALA was the servant of a rich
merchant in India. No one ever heard
of a better servant than he, so kind was
Devapala, and so faithful. His work was to take
his master's cows to graze by day, and to milk,
feed, and care for them evening and morning.
Most of the year this part of India was hot
and dry; there were few trees to shade one from
the burning sun. But when the rainy season
came all this was changed. There were drops
of rain in the sky, and the lightnings filled the
heaven; the troops of long-tailed peacocks danced
with joy; streams flowed where dust had been
before, and the rumbling clouds, like great water
jars, poured down the rain.
Devapala had taken his cows to graze and was
returning home. On his way he came to a river
swollen by the flood of rushing water and very
hard to ford. On the other side of the river he
saw floating an image of Jina. Now no good
Hindu would let an image of Jina be tossed about
in the rushing river, so Devapala waded over,
pulled the image to land, and set it up under a
pipal tree. Then as he went back he made a vow
that he would not eat again until after he had
worshiped the image. But it went right on rain-
ing, oh, ever so hard, - - so hard Devapala could
not ford the river to worship the Jina. It never
had rained so hard before. The great water jars in
the sky were certainly turned upside down, and for
seven days it did not stop. Seven days is a long
time to wait for one's breakfast, but Devapala
did not forget his vow. He would not eat one
crumb until he had worshiped the image of Jina.
On the seventh day the rain stopped at last.
The sun shone out, and the water from the wet
earth ran off down to the swollen river.
At last Devapala could ford the river and go
to the pipal tree, where the image was yet stand-
ing. He worshiped the good Jina as he had
promised, and to his surprise the image spoke
"O Devapala," it seemed to say, "I am much
pleased with such faithfulness. Go to sleep, and
see what I shall do to repay you."
So Devapala lay down and slept by the side
of the image of Jina.
Now on this very day and hour the King of the
city died from cholera. As he had no son to be
king in his place, the ministers said, 'We do
not know who will be King. What can we do?
Shall we let his elephant choose the next king?'
They all thought that would be the easiest
way, so they brought out the King's favorite
elephant, put on his finest crimson and gold
trappings, and fastened the gold and silver head-
piece on his head. Then they took a pitcher
filled with water, tied it to the head of the ele-
phant, and let him go. All the ministers ran along
to see where he would go, and all the people ran
along, too, to see on whom the King's elephant
All the people ran alon to sec on whom the Kit ':t!nt iconld
spill the tenter L . 39
would spill the water. You may be sure there
were many who tried to get in his way, and all
tried to be very near him so that if the water
spilled it might fall on them. What a pushing
and jamming there was, with people swarming
before and beside! But the grand old elephant
held his gold-trimmed head high, and not one drop
of water did he spill.
When the pushing crowd became too thick,
up went his trunk, and oh, such a trumpeting!
The people scattered then, and kept out of his
way, for they saw he wanted no one of them. He
walked on and on until he came to the pipal tree
by the river. There, by the image of the good
Jina, lay Devapala, fast asleep. The elephant
bent his head, and poured all the water from the
pitcher over the sleeping servant.
The ministers were glad, and the people all
shouted, ' ' Hurrah ! Here is our King ! Hurrah ! ' '
The ministers took the splendid garments they
had brought and dressed Devapala in them, put
him on the King's own elephant, and brought him
to the palace a King!
Now the merchant was very cross indeed to
lose such a good servant, and as he walked by
that same river he came upon the old clothes
Devapala had been wearing before the elephant
found him. They were very differ-
ent indeed from the clothes the King
was now wearing. Really, they were
dreadfully dirty and worn, for the
merchant had given Devapala only
rags to wear.
" Why should he become King?"
said the merchant. ' He was a very
good cowherd, and I wanted him for
that. I think I '11 just show the
people whom they have on their
So he took the dirty, ragged
clc thing and at night he nailed it
up en the gate of the palace and
wrote above it, in large letters,
Here are the real clothes of your
In the morning as the people came flocking past
the palace gate they saw the filthy rags there and
read the writing above them.
"Is it possible," they said to one another,
"that our King were such dirty things as those?"
"How disgusting! I wonder if the elephant
did n't make seme mistake."
"Are elephants really so wonderful after all,
do you think?"
When the King heard what the people were
saying, and saw how they felt, he was very sad.
But when he went to worship the Jina (as he did
each morning before breakfast), it said to him,
"Go home, and make an elephant of clay. Set it
up before the gate of the palace where all can see
it. Then mount it, just as though it were alive.
Feed it whole grain as you would a real elephant.
Do as I tell you, and you need not fear."
So Devapala the King went home and did just
as the Jina told him to do. He made a mighty
elephant of clay, and placed it before the palace
gate. Then he mounted it and fed it whole grain,
as though it were alive. All the people crowded
around to see what Devapala the King would
do with his clay elephant.
"Oh, look," they cried, "he is feeding his clay
elephant whole grain!"
"Why, it's eating it!"
"See! It is walking!"
"It surely is alive!"
Then the elephant raised his trunk, and trum-
peted as no elephant ever had trumpeted before.
The people all fell on their knees and cried,
"He is our King, our wonderful King! We will
love him and serve him always."
Right by the pipal tree, close by the swollen
river, Devapala the King built a beautiful temple,
and in it set up the very image of the Jina which
he had found. And every morning and every
evening he went to it, bearing sweet-smelling
things -- camphor, sandalwood, and fragrant
/ v -.
ONCE upon a time a soldier died, leaving his
wife and one boy. They were dreadfully
poor; in fact, they had nothing whatever
in the house to eat. So the boy said to his mother,
"Give me four shillings, and I'll go out in the
world to seek my fortune."
"My boy," said his mother, "how can I give
you four shillings when I have n't even a penny?"
"Let's look in the pockets of father's old
coat," said the boy. "Perhaps we'll find some-
They did look, and sure enough, there were
six shillings, really more than the boy needed to
take with him while seeking his fortune.
"Here, mother, you take two shillings. You
can live on that until I return. The others will
help me win my fortune."
Off he went, gayly jingling the four shillings
in his pocket and looking sharply about on all
sides to see where he could find his fortune.
Soon he came upon a huge tigress lying under
a tree, licking her great paw and groaning so fear-
fully that even the leaves on the trees shook.
' Well, I know that she is no fortune," he said,
'but I suppose I ought to help her, anyway.
Mistress Tiger, can I do anything for you?"
"Oh, if you would only pull this thorn out of
my paw," moaned the tigress, and the very tree
shook with her voice.
;< Please put your other paws a little farther
away, for your claws are very sharp, and I '11
try to draw it out."
So she moved her other paws as far away as
she could, and he pulled and tugged, and finally
drew out the thorn.
As a reward for his kindness she gave him a
small box, but told him not to open it until he
had gone nine miles.
He took the little box in his hand, and gayly
started off to seek his fortune. At the end of the
first few miles he found the box growing heavier
and larger, in fact, by the time he reached the
seventh mile it was so heavy he could scarcely
carry it. At the eighth mile he cried, "That box
is too heavy to carry another mile, or another
foot even! I don't care what is in it!" And he
threw it on the ground so hard that it was broken.
Just then out of the crack in the small box
there crawled a little old man only a foot high,
with a beard a foot and a half long trailing on the
ground under his feet and behind him. He be-
gan to stamp and scold, but the Soldier's Son
"Well, you are the heaviest man for your size
on this side of the sea! What is your name?"
"Kittle-Little-Buzz-Man," cried the little old
man, still stamping and scolding. "And why did
you throw me down that way? Don't you know
I am going to be your gentle, patient, faithful
servant as long as you need me?"
"Well, gentle, patient, faithful Kittle-Little-
Buzz-Man, can you get me something to eat?
For truly I am starving.
Hi re are four shillings to
pay for it."
The little man, still
stamping and scolding,
snatched the money, and,
whiz! boom! buz/! off he
flew, like a big dragon 11 y.
He flew to a candy store
in the village. There he
stood, this little foot-high
man with his foot-and-a-
half beard trailing under
his feet and behind him,
and he roared in a mighty
voice, "Ho! ho! ho! Mr.
Candy Maker, give me
some of your very finest
Now he happened to stand right behind a pile
of boxes, so the Candy Maker could not see him
at all. All around the room, and out the window,
and down the street looked the Candy Maker.
'Dear me, I thought I heard some one speak,"
At that, Kittle-Little-Buzz-Man was in a great
rage. He flew at the Candy Maker, pinching
and biting his legs, and screaming, "Of course
you heard some one speak! It's I, Kittle-Little-
Buzz-Man, the gentle, patient, faithful servant
of the Soldier's Son. I want one hundred pounds
of candy, wrapped up in a neat package, and I 've
money to pay for it here in my pocket." As he
stamped and scolded, he loudly rattled the four
shillings in his pocket.
The Candy Maker very obligingly wrapped up
the hundred pounds of candy in a neat package
and handed it to the little man, when, whiz!
boom ! buzz ! away he flew, like a dragon fly, with
the four shillings still in his pocket.
Straight he flew to a Baker's. There he stood,
this foot-high man, with his foot-and-a-half beard
trailing under his feet and behind him, and roared
in a mighty voice, "Ho! ho! ho! Mr. Baker, give
me some of your finest cakes."
Now he happened to stand right behind a
barrel of flour, so the Baker could not see him
at all. All around the room, and out the window,
and down the street looked the Baker.
"Dear me, I thought I heard some one speak,"
At that, Kittle-Little-Buzz-Man was in a
grand rage. He flew at the Baker, pinching and
biting his legs, and screaming, "Of course you
heard some one speak. It's I, Kittle-Little-Buzz-
Man, the gentle, patient, faithful servant of the
Soldier's Son. I want one hundred cakes wrapped
up in a neat package, and I Ve money to pay for
them here in my pocket." As he stamped and
scolded, he loudly rattled the four shillings in his
The Baker very obligingly wrapped up the
one hundred cakes in a neat package and handed
it to the little man, when, whiz! boom! buzz!
away he flew like a dragon fly, with the four
shillings still in his pocket.
The Soldier's Son was just wondering what
had become of his foot-tall, gentle, patient, faith-
ful servant, when, whiz! boom! buzz! the little
fellow landed plump at his feet, with his two
huge packages, and still stamping and scolding.
"Now I do hope I've brought you enough!
You men have such terrible appetites!"
"Oh, thank you, I think it will be enough,
and more too," laughed the Soldier's Son, taking
a handful of candy and two cakes. The little man
snatched all the rest, and gobble! gobble! gobble!
they were all gone in a jiffy.
Now the Soldier's Son and Kittle-Little-Buzz-
Man, his gentle, patient, faithful servant, still
stamping and scolding, a foot-high man with
his foot-and-a-half beard trailing under his feet
and behind him, traveled far until they came to
the city of the King.
This King had a daughter, the Princess Blos-
som, who was very beautiful, and so small that
she weighed only as much as five rosebuds -
no more. The Soldier's Son caught a glimpse of
her walking in her garden of roses, and at once
hurried to his foot-high servant, crying, "O Kittle-
Little-Buzz-Man, my gentle, patient, faithful
servant, carry me at once to the Princess Blossom.
I must have her to share my fortune with me."
"Your fortune? And what is it?" scolded the
little man, stamping his feet and jingling the
four shillings that were still safe in his pocket.
But just the same he took him to the Princess,
where she sat in her garden of roses. So pleased
7V/fy sf/ o^" together to sec the world
were they with each other that they talked and
talked. They talked until it was night, and then
they talked until it was day again. Then they
decided that they could never get through talking
with each other, so they just set off together to
see the world.
"Now, Kittle-Little-Buzz-Man, my gentle,
patient, faithful servant," said the Soldier's Son,
"since my fortune is made already, I won't need
you any more, so you may go back to the tigress."
" Pooh ! " said the little man, stamping. " You
think you won't want me. But here's your four
shillings; I saved them for you, and that's more
than you could ever do. You'd better take this
hair from my beard and tie it around your ankle,
and when you want me just burn it in the fire and
I'll come at once."
Then, whiz! boom! buzz! off he went like a
big dragon fly, and the two young people wandered
on, talking and talking and talking.
Now when they had gone, oh, ever so far, they
lost their way in a wood, where a Brahman found
them, and said, 'You two poor children, come
with me to my home and I'll feed and care
for you." So, very happily, they went to the
Brahman's house with him.
When they reached the house the Brahman
gave them a bunch of keys, saying, "Now just
go in and cook anything you want. Open all the
cupboards except the one with the golden key.
While you are doing this I'll go and find some
wood for a fire."
They went in and opened all the cupboards
(they were all full of gold and jewels) and also
the one with the golden key, but that was full of
skulls and dead men's bones.
"Oh, horrors!" cried the Soldier's Son. "We
are lost! This must be the house of a Vampire,
and not a Brahman at all."
Just at that moment they heard him at the
door, gnashing his teeth and ready to eat them
alive. Quick as a flash the Princess snatched the
magic hair from the ankle of the Soldier's Son and
held it in the fire.
Whiz! boom! buzz! some one came flying
through the air like a great dragon fly. The
Vampire knew well enough who it was, and had
just time enough to turn into a driving rain, hoping
to drown Kittle-Little-Buzz-Man, but he changed
into a fierce wind, which drove away the rain.
Then the Vampire became a dove, and dashed
away, but that same second the little man be-
came a hawk and was after the dove.
The dove changed into a rose, and fell into the
King's lap. At once the hawk, as an old musician,
was playing to the King so sweetly that the King
said, "What reward will you take for such beau-
tiful music? I will give you anything I possess."
"O King, pray give me the rose that lies in
your lap," said the old musician.
As the King handed him the rose the petals
fell in a shower. Quick as thought, he snatched
them from the ground, all but one, which changed
into a mouse and scampered away. Then the
musician changed into a cat, dashed alter, and
caught and gobbled up the mouse in a twinkling.
Then, whiz! boom! buzz! back he was beside
the Princess Blossom and the Soldier's Son, who
were trembling with fear as they awaited the end
of this terrible battle. Stamping and scolding,
he stood before them, this foot-high man, with
his foot-and-a-half beard trailing under his feet
and behind him, and said, "Now you go home,
you two silly children. You need a mother to
take care of you, for you do not know enough
to take care of yourselves."
So he filled their arms and pockets full of gold
and jewels, and whizzed them home to where the
mother of the Soldier's Son had been waiting for
him, and her two shillings were almost spent.
She was glad enough to see them, and loved
the beautiful, delicate Princess Blossom as though
she were her own daughter. So they all lived
happily after that, and always had plenty of
shillings jingling in their pockets.
poor Plowman used to work in the
fields near a temple. He had no family or
friends, yet he never seemed unhappy.
He was constantly listening, as though he heard
music that was unknown to others. The wind in
the trees, the rain on the leaves, the droning of the
insects, and the rustling of the grass formed his
choir and orchestra. He knew and loved all the
sounds about him, so he was never lonely or sad.
He was poor; so poor, indeed, that he never
had anything but a handful of boiled rice for his
dinner, but so generous was he that he always
laid a part of his scanty food on the temple steps,
that no wanderer need leave there hungry.
One day he almost forgot to divide his poor
little handful of rice, and he had a bit all but in
his mouth before he remembered. He sprang up
and started to the temple steps, but when he came
near he was terrified to see a huge lion standing
there. He hesitated for a second, then said to
himself, "Well, if I must die in a lion's mouth,
so I die. But at least I will not forget my vow
to share my dinner with those who are poorer
than I." So he walked boldly toward the temple
steps, and as he came near, the lion backed away
He put half of his ball of rice on the temple
step and had the other half to his lips when a
hermit stood before him, holding out a beseeching
hand. The Plowman hastily divided what he
had with the hermit, who suddenly disappeared,
just as had the lion.
He had raised the little remaining rice to his
lips when an old man appeared. The rice he had
left was not enough to divide, so the Plowman
handed it all to him. In a moment the old man
was gone, but in his place stood a Jina. Now
the Plowman was distressed that he had no more
rice to offer to the Jina, but he explained that he
had given it all away and promised that he would
bring some the next day.
"Oh, Plowman," the Jina replied, "I did not
come to share your rice, but to grant you a wish.
Think well, then ask for whatever you most
desire, for anything that you wish is yours."
The Plowman thought for a while, and then
said, "What I really wish for most is to be able
to play upon a harp some of the music I hear
every day around me in the fields and the forest."
"That is a wise and noble choice," said the
Jina, "and you shall have your wish. Come
The Plowman swung his plow over his shoulder
and walked along with the Jina. After a time
they came to a splendid palace, the palace of a
The poor Plowman was abashed, and said,
"I cannot go to the palace of a great King. I am
but a poor Plowman. My place is in the fields."
"You must go where I bid you," said the
Jina, and he led him into the palace, and up to
a seat on a high platform.
'What is all this magnificence, and why are
all these Kings and Princes seated here?" asked
"This is a Svayamvara," answered the Jina.
"Each one of these Kings and Princes is here to
try for the hand of the beautiful Princess. She
will show which one she chooses by throwing a
wreath of flowers about his neck. These foolish
Kings are dressed in all their gorgeous robes
because they think she w r ill choose their gold and
"But I don't belong here. Let me go away,"
urged the Plowman.
'Better stay, and here is your plow just
keep that handy," said the Jina.
Presently the Princess came in, and she was
more beautiful than music. The Plowman felt
sure that she would understand the voices he
heard in the fields, and love them, too.
Her father handed a harp to each King and
Prince. He paused before the Plowman, and
looked curiously at him, but the Princess stepped
up quickly and said, "Yes, give him a harp, too,
for I feel sure that he can play."
The King then made this announcement:
"Hear, all Princes and Kings! The Princess has
made a vow that if any man can excel her in
playing the harp, that man shall be her husband."
The first Prince stepped forward, smiling and
conceited. He played so soothingly that a wild
elephant was quieted, and became tame from
Then the second one tried. He played a joy-
ous song. The sky became more blue, the sun
shone more brightly, and a barren tree by the
palace bore new leaves.
The music of the third was so sweet that even
the timid deer from the forest came near.
' Stupid creatures ! "' cried the Princess. " C an't
you play better than that?" Then she took a
harp and played a soothing melody, when lo! the
wild elephant knelt down to allow the driver to
mount his head. Then she played a joyous song,
and the sky became like sapphire, the sun dazzled
them with its brightness, and the barren tree by
the palace burst into bloom. Next she played
so sweetly that the timid deer from the fount
came up and lay down by the palace gate.
Then all the Kings and Princes were cast down,
for they saw that she could play far more wonder-
fully than they. Presently, she came to the
Plowman, and asked him to play. He was about
to refuse, but the Jina whispered to him, ''Share
with her the music you hear in the fields and the
forest. It would be selfish to refuse."
So the Plowman took up the harp, and seemed
to be listening to the distant music he so loved.
His fingers stole over the strings, drawing out
music such as no one had ever heard before. One
by one the Princes bowed their heads, and slept.
Then down from their proud heads slipped the
golden, jeweled crowns. Ropes of rubies and
emeralds loosed themselves from royal necks.
All this glittering mass came to the feet of the
Plowman, drawn by the power of his music.
The Princess was delighted, and threw over his
neck the garland of flowers, showing her choice.
Then the Kings and Princes woke up.
'What! Has she chosen that man!' they
exclaimed. "He is not a King, or even a Prince.
He is only a Plowman! See his plow! We will
take her anyway!"
They dashed toward her, and were going to
take her and carry her off. But she clung to the
Plowman, and cried, "Save me from those horrid,
stupid men ! Their music makes me ill. I should
die if I had to listen to it always."
So the Plowman stood up and seized his plow.
One King drove his elephant at him, to trample
down, but he swung the good plow about
him, and crash! it went through the elephant's
head. A second King drove at him with a chariot
and six horses. The good plow swung quickly
around, cut open the heads of the horses, and
smashed the chariot. By that time there was no
one near him save the Princess. The Kings and
Princes, from afar, too far for the plow to touch,
knelt down and worshiped him.
"O Most Mighty One! to thee belongs the
beautiful Princess. Thou art the only King, and
we are the dust beneath thy feet," they said, then
hastened away, not even waiting for their crowns
The Princess and the Plowman were married,
and he taught her to hear the wonderful music
of the fields and the forest, and each day he put
a part of his food on the temple steps, that no
wanderer need leave there hungry.
A,L that I tell you of Mahendra, the Prince
of India, happened many years ago, and
far, far away, but, believe me, it as surely
happened as though it were but yesterday, and
on this very spot.
The rains were over, and the fields were again
green and lovely, when Mahendra saw a picture
of a girl so beautiful that he wished to make her
He went boldly to the kingdom of her father
and asked him for his beautiful daughter. The
King sighed and said, "My daughter, the Princess
Jani, will not marry any man unless he can bring
the fairy Moonbeam to dance at her wedding."
Mahendra replied, "Then I go to find the fairy
Moonbeam, and ask her to come to dance at
our wedding, for I am determined to marry the
, dO flOl f M' 1 1 ' ( )li i 7 it'
Off he started on the long journey to the home
of the Gnome King, where he knew that the fairy
Moonbeam lived. After many days of traveling
he came, at last, to the great, white marble gates
of the palace. He called and rapped, and tried
to open the gates, but received no answer.
At last a little old man called to him, " O Prince,
do not try to enter those gates. No mortal
ever has. Come here to my cottage, and rest."
The old man had a pleasant, honest face, so
Prince Mahendra went into the cottage with him.
As they were talking, the Prince noticed a beauti-
ful silver top set with pearls lying on a table. He
picked it up and looked at it. 'Where have I
seen that top before?" he asked.
"That top was given to me by a little boy,
many years ago," answered the old man. "He
saw me lying by the roadside, sick and alone,
and asked those with him to stop and care for
me, but they refused to do so, and rode on. The
little boy turned and tossed me this top, and called,
'Here, take this. It will make you well/ And
do you know, the moment the top touched me
I became well, and have never been sick since."
"And do you know," said Mahendra, "I was
that little boy. I remember it all now. And
this is a magic top. All you have to do is to give
it to some one as you ask him to do what you
wish, and what you ask for comes at once. It is
the magic of the top, and no one can refuse. See,
I give it to you and say, 'Please bring me the
fairy Moonbeam,' and you will do it."
"Oh, I really can't get- ' began the old man,
but before the sentence was finished he was there,
holding the fairy by the hand. Such a dainty,
beautiful fairy! No wonder her name was Moon-
beam, and all the world had heard of her.
"Make haste and tell me what you wish me
to do," she said, "for if the Gnome King finds
that I am gone he may come and turn us all to
stones, just as he has so many others."
Just then there was a roar like a tempest.
The marble gates swung open, and the Gnome
King himself came bouncing out. His clothes
were made of woven gold, and strings of pearls
and precious stones were tangled all over him.
On his misshapen head he had a gorgeous crown
that only made still more hideous the ugly face
"Be a stone, and lie where you stand! Be
a stone, and lie where you stand!" he cried to
the old man and to Mahendra, and they were
cold blocks of stone before his words were gone.
Then he turned to the fairy and said, "Come
with me, my lovely Moonbeam; I cannot live
one hour without you. Come back into the palace
with me at once."
The poor fairy Moonbeam was frightened to
see what had happened. Just then she noticed
the silver top lying where the old man had dropped
it when he turned to stone. Of course she knew
how to use it, for had n't she been brought there
by its magic? She picked it up and gave it to
the Gnome King, saying, as she did so, "Here
is a gift for you, and by its power be you and yours
turned to smoke and ashes forever, and your
victims be made to live again."
It was the magic of the top, and no one could
withstand it. As the stones sprang into life
again the Gnome King crumbled and fell before
the old man and Mahendra like dry ashes. The
marble gates slipped down and disappeared as
they fell. Then, like a dream carved in marble
and gold, the whole dazzling palace stood revealed.
Slowly it drifted away, like a cloud of white
smoke, touched with gold, and was lost among
the sunset clouds. Where it had stood a short
time before lay the level plain, white with dust
When Mahendra looked around for the fairy-
Moonbeam he saw in her place a most beautiful
girl, the girl of the picture.
''Are you the beautiful Jam?" he asked.
''Yes, I am; but for years I have been a slave
to that ugly Gnome King, and had to obey him.
I had begun to think no one would ever save
me from him. Even you could not have saved
me if it had not been for this magic top. Now
let us go home to my father's kingdom, where we
will be married, and let us take with us, as our
most precious possession always, this magic top."
OF DIACRITICAL MARKINGS
as in ale
as in senate
as in care
as in m
as in final
as in arm
as in ask
as in sofa
as in eve
as in create
as in Snd
as in nov#l
as in cinder
as in Ice
as in ill
as in old
as in 6bey
as in lord
as in 6dd
o , as in connect
o as in soft
oo as in food
06 as in foot
ou as in thou
th as in this
u as in pQre
u as in unite
ft as in urn
u as in study
u as in circus
rj (like ng) : for n before the
sound k or hard g as in
N indicates the nasal tone, as
in French, of the preceding
tu for tu as in nature
- ' > ^
' for voice glide as in par'd'n
A PRONOUNCING AND DEFINING
[In this vocabulary the definitions eover only those meanings
which apply in tin- stories in which the words appear. The di;u-rr
marks used to indicate pronunciation agree with the la' '-.'ion
of U'ei' ter's New [ntemational I )ictionary.J
abashed ( d basht')- Confused or embarrassed.
Aramacobha u ra ma co'lx/j. Wonderful Garden of Dreams.
bamboo (bam boo'). A grass which has a hollow stem and which
sometimes grows to be one hundred twenty feet high; found in
the lands near the equator.
barren (bar'^n). Without leaves or fruit.
bellow <b<.To). To make a loud noise; to roar.
Bonga (borj'g(i). A supernatural being inhabiting trees, waterfalls,
Brahman (.bra'nwn). A man of highest caste or rank in India.
camphor (kam'fcr). The fragrant wood from the camphor tree.
cholera (kol'er d). A disc
cobra (ko'brd). A very poisonous snake found in the warm parts of
coil (koil). To wind about, to encircle,
cunning (kun'ing). Skill.
Devapala (de va pa'l-i).
dismount (dls mount'). To get down from an animal, such as a horse
drone (dron). To make a low humming sound.
emerald (em'er aid). A rieli green jewel, one () f the precious stones.
ford (f6rd). To cross a body of water at a place where it is shallow
enough to wade.
fount (fount). A fountain.
gnash (nash). To grind or strike together.
gnome (nom). An elk or fairy.
hermit (hur'mit). A person who lives alone far away from everybody
'Q\ Jani (ja'ne).
Jina (Ji'nd). A being worshiped by the Hindus.
leopard (lep'erd). A large spotted cat found wild in southern Asia.
Mahendra (ma hen'dra).
mango (man 'go). A very large tree which grows in the warm parts
melody (mel'6 di). A sweet arrangement of sounds.
ministers (min'is terz). The men who manage the affairs of a king.
mortal (mor'tol). A human being.
pipal (pe'pal). The sacred fig tree of India.
ruby (roo'bi). A precious stone, red in color.
sandal wood (san'dal wood'). The fragrant yellowish wood from an
East Indian tree.
sapphire (saf'ir). A bright blue jewel, one of the precious stones.
shilling (shil'ing). A silver coin equal to about twenty-four cents in
the United States.
Svayamvara (sva'am va'rd). The ceremony of choosing a husband.
sweetmeat (swet'met'). Fruit cooked with sugar in such a way that
it can be kept for a long time.
switch (swich). To swing quickly.
tempest (tem'pest). A furious storm.
trappings (trap'ingz). Decorations for an animal, such as a horse
Vampire (vam'pir). A person who lives upon others.
vow (vou). A solemn promise.
writhe (nth). To twist and turn.
Yogi (yo'ge). An Indian wizard.
SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS
INDIA is a land of mysteries. Shut off from the rest
of the world by a mountain wall towering in some
places live miles high, it has developed races and
customs different from those of any other land. The- life
and thought of some of these people- arc rdlected to an
unusual decree in the stories in this book, stories of magic
though they arc. And while in the reading it is of the
first importance that the child obtain the fullest appreciation
of the story as a story, at the same time it should be made
clear that the characters, the situations, and the "atmos-
1 ihcre" are not altogether those of mythland but are actually
to a large extent those of India itself. The following
suggestions will serve to show how this idea may be brought
I. GEOGRAPHY AXD NATURE STUDY
India is shaped like a huge kite with its lower point almost
as far south as the Panama Canal, and its upper edges as
far north as Evansville, Indiana, a distance of about 1,900
miles. If its eastern corner touched Charleston, South
Carolina, it would reach west as far as the eastern line of
From references in the various stories to the heat, or to
a spring, or a wood, or a storm ("Wonderful Ciarden of
Dreams," p. 15; "Magic Fiddle," p. 25; "Little Toe Bone,"
pp. 33 and 35; "Devapala," p. 38; etc.), it will be easy to
bring out the varying climate and physical character of
this great country: the cool, elevated stretches along the
slopes of the Himalayas; the rich, fertile valleys of the
Indus and Ganges, with their seasons of excessive, parching
heat and torrential rains; and the coast regions -- similar
to all coast regions -- with their more humid, less variable
In nearly every story there is mentioned some animal,
bird, tree, or plant which, if attention is called to it, to
its appearance, to the places where it lives or grows, and
to other characteristics, will afford a valuable nature lesson.
It should be remembered that the cow in India is not the
animal that we know by that name, but a humped variety;
and that the elephant and camel are as commonly seen
in some parts of India as is the horse in the United States.
The trees of India are beautiful and interesting and many
of them are almost unknown elsewhere. The palm (p. 15)
is the Hindu's greatest friend. The wood is valuable; the
leaves are used to thatch houses and for fuel, and from
them are made baskets, cords, fans, and numberless other
articles; the fruit supplies food, and the sap is used for
"toddy" or wine. The Hindus believe the palm lives for
a thousand years.
The mango (p. 15) is famed for the loveliness of its flowers
and for its delicious fruit. In The Voyages of the Sunbeam,
Lady Brassey says: "The mango is certainly the king of
fruits. Its flavor is a combination of the apricot and
Bamboo (p. 25) is really the name of a tribe of grasses, the
largest species of which reaches a height of one hundred
twenty feet. Many varieties bloom annually, others at
intervals of sometimes many years. All the parts and
products of the bamboo arc utilized in oriental countries.
The soft shoots an- served like asparagus, <>r arc salted,
pickled, candied, or preserved in sugar. The Hindus mix
the :,( eds with honey and roast them. The fleshy fruit
of one speeies is baked and eaten. The stem serves end'
purposes. From it are made 1 water buckets, bottles, and
cooking vessels. Houses are built from it. It is used in
shipping and fishing, for water pipes, and in making all
kinds of agricultural and domestic implements. The outer
cuticle cut into thin strips is woven into baskets and
furniture. It has been called "the most wonderful and
most beautiful production of the tr< >i >ies. and one of nature's
most valuable gifts to uncivilized man."
The pipal (p. 38) is the sacred fig tree of India. It
resembles our sycamore.
The children should keep a list of these trees as they come
to them, and compare them with our own fruit and shade
trees, in si/c, appearance, and usefulness. Similar lists of
birds and wild animals will be instructive.
II. THE PEOPLE AND THEIR HOMES
Although the features of the Hindus are much like those
of Europeans, their skin varies in color from the lightest
brown to jet black. People of the lower classes generally
are darker than those of high class, though toward the south
of India, near Madras, the darker type prevails. Many
Hindus wash the face, arms, and feet in saffron water to
give them a yellow color. They paint the outer edge of
the eyelid with lampblack and redden the tips of the fingers
and nails with henna.
From the clothing alone three things can be told about
a native of India: the section where he lives, his religion,
and his social standing. Thus, the Hindu is not only dis-
tinguished from the Mohammedan, Sikh, and Parsee, but,
to some extent, his caste is proclaimed as well. Certain
garments, however, are worn by all Hindus, throughout
India. The average Hindu has no expensive tailor's bill,
for his apparel consists largely of long strips of cloth wound
about the body.
The dhoti, the most distinctive Hindu garment, is worn
by both men and women. It is a piece of cotton cloth
several yards long and about a yard wide, and is wrapped
about the hips a number of times with the end tucked in.
No buttons, pins, or strings are used. With this, men
usually wear a similar piece of cloth, the chaddar, thrown
across the shoulders and drawn about the waist. The
kurta, a sort of shirt, and the angharka, a short coat, also
may be worn.
The head covering for men is either a cap or a turban,
the latter a piece of cloth from six to eight inches wide and
from ten to fifty yards long. It is wound about the head
in various fashions according to the station of the wearer.
A line turban is an object of much pride. Women wear the
orhna, or veil, over their heads.
Sandals or decorated slippers are worn l>y men, but
women frequently wear neither shoes nor stockings. Jewelry
of all kinds is worn by both men and women.
Women sometimes wear the kitrtd, and sometimes a short
bodice fastened with strings at the back. In Rajputana
a full skirt hanging to the knees or a little below is worn.
In other places instead of the skirt women wear the sari,
a long piece of cotton or silk, half of which is draped around
the waist and lianas to the feet in folds, while the remainder
passes over the head and down the left shoulder.
The well-to-do farmer has his court yard and, with the
exception of a shed for his cattle and implements, his entire
building is divided into living and store rooms. Most of
the houses are simple, with but one or, it may be, two rooms,
and n veranda. They arc usually dean. A rucle stone mill
occupies one corner of the dwelling, the mud fireplace an-
other, and a few brass vessels stand against the wall; a box
for extra clothing, and the rolls of beddiii isting of grass
mats and quilted cotton nigs, complete the furnishing.
"The Indian village consists of two straggling lines of
rude tile-roofed houses facing the roadway and main artery
of traffic, with, it may be, a few side streets leading off to
groups of still simpler structures, the homes of the low-e:
laboring classes who form the larger part of the village'
community. Round about the- village are grouped its pond
or tank, wells, groves, and fields."
At dawn the women rise' and perform ablutions, then
clean the house. Later the men rise, bathe, cleanse their
teeth a duty always faithfully 7 performed -- and worship
the household god or gods which in each home, however
humble, have a niche to themselves where they squat, each
on his own altar.
The man of the household makes a puja in front of the
altar and scatters about this shrine rice and flowers. Then
the hookas, or long pipes, are lighted, and the women serve
The principal dishes on their menus are soup, fish, currie,
rice, rice cakes, puddings, porridge, pulse, and fruit. After
a meal all chew pan, a concoction made from betel nuts.
III. RELIGIOUS AND CASTE SYSTEMS
Although class distinction or caste is today the dominating
factor in the life of every native of India, and though even
in the shadowy period of Indian history the Aryan people
were divided into social grades, during the legendary ages
caste, in the modern sense, was unknown. Partly for this
reason and partly because a story has ever an added romance
when it disregards conventions, in the myths in this book
there is little observance of caste law. There is ample
opportunity, however, for an explanation of the caste
system if the teacher finds it desirable to give one.
The first caste, the Brahman (p. 53), is superior to all
others. Members of this caste may be, but are not obliged
to be, priests. No one dares harm, and all must honor them.
They often retire to some lonely place and devote them-
selves to meditation and self-denial. Some become religious
beggars and wander about from place to place living on
alms. Even in this condition, however, the Brahman is con-
sidered far better and holier than any one in a lower caste.
Rulers and warriors (pp. 18, 27, 45, etc.) constitute the
second caste; the third includes farmers and merchants
(p- 3/)'- while the fourth, by far the largest caste, is made
up of all laborers, servants, and handworkers (pp. 37, 48, 57).
Each caste has many subcastes.
A Hindu can never change his caste nor marry one who
docs not belong to it. To cat with one of another caste is
a terrible sin; and to touch one of a lower caste necessii
careful bathing and prayers to be clean again. To "break"
caste is worse than to commit a crime; those who have
broken caste, or whose ancestors have done so, arc pariahs,
or outcasts, despised by every one.
The Yogi (p. 25) are a peculiar religious sect who try to
become unconscious of all about them. They arc supposed
to be very holy and wise. As an act of special piety they
often retain a certain physical position for years. Some
have held up one arm until it became wit In-red; some have
clenched their fists until the finger nails grew through the
back of the hand.
Princesses of the royal blood are the only Hindu women
allowed the privilege of choosing a husband. To the
svayamvara, as the ceremony of choosing a husband is
called, come all those wishing to compete for the hand of a
princess. Usually there is a contest of some sort, such as
singing or verse-making. The royal lady signifies her choice
by throwing a wreath of flowers about the neck of the
The Jina (Jinn or Genii) is, according to Hindu belief, a
being less than an angel or god, who is able to take the form
of animals or people and who has great power for evil or for
good over those who worship it.
The Bonga is a supernatural being believed to inhabit
trees, waterfalls, and fountains. Possessing magic power,
he is supposed to be able to change the forms of others,
though unable to change his own.
Throughout India all serpents are thought to have
miraculous power and are treated with great respect, although
only the cobra or hooded serpent (p. 22) is held sacred.
The cobra is considered a protector and harbinger of good.
Rude representations of serpents are worshiped in every
part of India.
When one speaks of art in connection \vitli any Eurof)can
country the word at once brings to niind paintin;. 1 -; of madon-
nas and of landscapes, art galleries, and exhiliits. With
rcncc to India "art" suggests, instead, the rich color
and infinitely varied patterns of oriental rugs and fabrics,
the lavish and wonderfully beautiful carvings on temples,
palaces, and tombs, and the exquisite ornamentation of
brass and silver ware, and of countless article's in wood and
ivory. Bright color is characteristic of Indian clothing and
The illustrations in this book will serve as a starting point
for the study of Indian art. Furniture catalogue's often
contain pictures of oriental rugs that show typical patterns,
and the booklets issued by rug dealers frequently contain,
be ides descriptions of weaving and dyeing pro
colored illustrations that bring out admirably both color
From the illustrations in the stories children should
observe Hindu costumes sufficiently to make other pictures
for the text.
Indian architecture is very different from European and
American architecture, and while this is a subject that can-
not be elaborated for this grade, the illustrations (pp. 21,
44, 52, 66, for example) should be used at least to point out
These stories, like other folk tales, lend themselves
admirably to pantomime and dramatization. The action
in "Little Toe Bone," for instance, is very clear and simple
and the conversation natural. "The Magic Fiddle" and
"Devapala" are both "interesting stories for dramatization
of a slightly more advanced character, and certain scenes
from "Little Buzz-Man" will be entered into with unusual
spontaneity and spirit.
ARNOLD, Edwin, "The Light of Asia." Chicago. AY;,' }'ork:
Raw! Me \\tlly & ( 'o.
BRUCE, James, "Scenes and Sights in the East." London:
Smith Elder & ( 'oinpany.
DEL MAR, Walter, "India of Today." London: Adam
& Charles Black.
FRERE, Mary, "Old Deccan Days." /. .>ndon: John Murray.
MANSFIELD, B. M., "Our Little Hindu Cousin." Boston:
L. C. Page c-" ( \nnpany.
MOXRO, W. D., "Stories of Indian dods and H<T.
London: George G. Harrap c~ ( 'onipany.
OMAN-, J. C., "Indian Life." Philadelphia: (,'chhie &
1'ixATT, Mara L., "People and Places Here and Thnv:
India." Boston: Educational Publishing I'oinpany.
RO\VK, A. D., "Everyday Life In India." New York:
American '1'ra. t So( iety.
RUSSELL, Norman, "Village Life in India" New York,
Chicago: I-lemin^ II. Rwell Company.
TAYLOR, Bayard, "A Visit to India, China, and Japan."
AYri 1 }'(>rk: (i. I'. Pittihim's .S>;;.\\
WILSON, Richard. "The Indian Story Book." New York:
The Maemillan ( 'oinpany.
The article on India in the Encyclopaedia Britanniea